Migration guide from Restlet 1.0 to 1.1


This guide intends to explain the main differences between the Restlet 1.0 and 1.1 releases and to help you migrate your existing applications.

It presents a set of important modifications related to:

  • Handling of context
  • Handling of resources
  • Usage of the Servlet Adapter
  • Access to “current” objects
  • Access to the original resource reference of the current request
  • Handling of statuses and exceptions
  • Miscellaneous
  • List of deprecations (mainly renamed methods)

Important breaking changes

Handling of context

The handling of Context has been significantly refactored in the 1.1 release due to security reasons. In release 1.0, a Component shared its context between all attached applications. It appeared that this design could lead to conflicts where an application would update the component’s context and thus impact the behavior of the other applications.

Here are the main changes implemented in the 1.1 release:

  • Each connector now has its own instance of Context to allow setting of different parameter values on different connectors.
  • A new Context#createChildContext() method has been added to create a new isolated child context from a parent component’s context.
  • The semantics of the Application(Context) constructor has changed in that the given context is no more the parent context, but the application’s context.
  • The “attach” methods on virtual hosts and internal component router now automatically set the child context on the target application with a null context is detected.

Thus, we encourage you to override the default Application() constructor instead of the Application(Context) one which is only useful in a few cases where you need to immediately have access to the application’s context.

Another consequence is that parameters or attributes are not copied from the component to the application by the default implementation of the Context#createChildContext() method which is typically used to prepare the Application’s context based on the parent Component’s context.

Sample code

When a component instantiate an Application, or any kind of Restlet, it is no more mandatory to specify the context. Taking a simple component that attaches an application, here is the ancient way to achieve this:

Component component = new Component();

// Add a new HTTP server listening on port 8182.
component.getServers().add(Protocol.HTTP, 8182);

// Attach the sample application.
component.getDefaultHost().attach(new FirstStepsApplication(component.getContext()));

And now, here is the new way:

Component component = new Component();

// Add a new HTTP server listening on port 8182.
component.getServers().add(Protocol.HTTP, 8182);

// Attach the sample application.
component.getDefaultHost().attach(new FirstStepsApplication());

If you still need to handle the context in the Application constructor, you must do as follow:

Component component = new Component();

// Add a new HTTP server listening on port 8182.
component.getServers().add(Protocol.HTTP, 8182);

// Attach the sample application.
component.getDefaultHost().attach(new FirstStepsApplication(component.getContext().createChildContext()));

The application is instantiated with a child context, not the component context. Otherwise, your application might not start properly and a log trace will warn you.

Handling of resources

Some new boolean attributes have been added on the resource class. They help to specify the state of a Resource instance.

  • The “available” attribute says if the current resource exists and can present a representation. If a resource is not available, then a 404 status is returned.
  • The “modifiable” attribute says if the current resource supports the methods that update its state, that is to say, for the HTTP protocol: POST, PUT and DELETE.
  • The “readable” attribute says if the current resource is able to generate a representation. If a resource is not readable, a resource will answer to GET and HEAD HTTP methods with a “method not allowed” response status.

Usage of the Servlet Adapter

  • The ServletConverter now also copy the Servlet’s request attributes into the Restlet attributes map.
  • A static ServletCall.getRequest(Request) method has been added to the Servlet extension and gives access to the HttpServletRequest object.
  • The underlying component can now be customized which allows to define several applications either with a “/WEB-INF/restlet.xml file”, or a “org.restlet.component” parameter in the “web.xml”. see ServerServlet javadocs for more details.

Accessing current objects

Some recurrent need is to access current objects such as the current application, the current context, etc. Although, the API of some objects gives direct access to such properties (e.g. “Resource#getApplication”), it was generally not the case with Restlet 1.0, thus some static methods have been introduced in Restlet 1.1:

Method name Description
Response.getCurrent() The current Response object handled by the current thread.
Application.getCurrent() The current Application object handled by the current thread.
Context.getCurrent() The current Context handled by the current thread.
Context.getCurrentLogger() Always returns a non-null logger, if possible the current context’s logger.

These methods may help you to reduce the number of lines of code but, for proper object-oriented design, we recommend using them only under duress. Typical case is when you need to integrate Restlet code with a third-party library that doesn’t let you pass in your Restlet context or objects. For example, you should by default prefer obtaining the current context using methods such as Restlet.getContext() or Handler.getContext().

Accessing the original resource’s reference

New features have been added to the tunnel filter. Some of them allow you to automatically update the request according to some parameters specified in the query part of the target resource’s reference. In this case, it happens that the resource’s reference is updated. If you still want to access the original reference, a new attribute has been added to the Request object called “originalRef’”.

Handling of statuses and exceptions

A new “ResourceException” class has been introduced. Basically, it encapsulates a status and the optional cause of a checked exception. This exception may be thrown by a Resource instance when handling GET, POST, PUT, etc requests. This exception can be handled by the status service when rendering error statuses.


This section lists several updates that may have an impact on your existing code

  • The Resource class now accepts POST requests without any entity, or with an empty entity.
  • The list of known media-types defined on the MetadataService has been completed with Tomcat’s entries
  • Added a Representation.release() to have an uniform way to release a representation without forcing a read for example or manually closing the socket, the channel, the file, etc.
  • Added a Representation.exhaust() method that reads and discards content optimally (better than getText())
  • Application is now concrete and has a setRoot() method.
  • Filter.beforeHandle() and doHandle() methods can now indicate if the processing should continue normal, go to the afterHandle() method directly or stop immediately.

    IMPORTANT NOTE: as it isn’t possible to add a return parameter to an existing method, the change can break existing filters. In this case, you just need to return the “CONTINUE” constant from your method and use “int” as a return parameter.

  • Added Handler.getQuery() method to easily return the request’s target resource reference query as a parsed form (series of parameters).
  • The Message’s getEntityAsDom(), getEntityAsSax() and getEntityAsForm() are now caching the result representation for easier reuse in a Restlet filters chain.


Resource class

List of renamed methods to prevent confusion with lower-level methods handleGet(), handletPost(), handlePut() and handleDelete() now part of the parent class of Resource, the Handler class.

Method Replacement
getPreferredRepresentation() represent()
getRepresentation(Variant) represent(Variant)
post(Representation) acceptRepresentation(Representation)
put(Representation) storeRepresentation(Representation)
delete() removeRepresentations()

Variant class

Some properties and methods have been moved to the Representation subclass

  • getExpirationDate, setExpirationDate
  • getModificationDate, setModificationDate
  • getSize, setSize
  • getTag, setTag


List of renamed methods.

Method Replacement
getCharacterSetAttribute getCharacterSetParameter
setCharacterSetAttribute setCharacterSetParameter
getEncodingAttribute getEncodingParameter
setEncodingAttribute setEncodingParameter
getLanguageAttribute getLanguageParameter
setLanguageAttribute setLanguageParameter
getMediaTypeAttribute getMediaTypeParameter
setMediaTypeAttribute setMediaTypeParameter


This class allows to link a metadata with several extensions name. However, only the first one in the list will be returned by the getExtension(Metadata), it is considered as the preferred one. The “getMappings” and “setMappings” methods have been removed. Instead, use getExtension(Metadata), getMetadata(String) and the addExtension(String, Metadata), addExtension(String, Metadata, boolean preferred), clearExtension methods


Since 1.1 with no replacement as it doesn’t fit well with content negotiation. Most users prefer to handle those conversion in Resource subclasses.


As a consequence of the previous change, the following methods are not replaced: Request#getEntityAsObject, Request#setEntity(Object)


List of renamed methods.

Method Replacement
getChallengeRequest getChallengeRequests
getRedirectRef getLocationRef
setRedirectRef setLocationRef


Method Replacement
createResource(Request, Response) createTarget(Request, Response) and take care of the targetClass property.


Removed the Logger parameter to all constructors. which still can be set with the setLogger(Logger) method.


The init(Request, Response) method is removed. Instead, make sure that you call the {@link #handle(Request, Response)} method from your Restlet superclass.


Removed the Logger parameter to all constructors.


Method Replacement
isInfo(int code) isInformational(int)
isInfo() isInformational()


ChallengeScheme HTTP_AWS replaced by HTTP_AWS_S3


The SMTP_STARTTLS protocol is removed. Use the “startTls” parameter on the JavaMail connector instead.


Method Replacement
getChallengeRequest getChallengeRequests
getRedirectRef getLocationRef
setRedirectRef setLocationRef


List of renamed methods.

Method Replacement
challenge(Response) challenge(Response, boolean) The added boolean indicates if the new challenge is due to a stale response.
checkSecret(String, char[]) checkSecret(Request, String, char[]) Added the request parameter


List of renamed method.

Method Replacement
getDispatcher getClientDispatcher NB: it exists a server dispatcher.


List of renamed methods

Method Replacement
getURIResolver getUriResolver